Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, are ligand-inducible transcription factors. PPARs have three members in human beings: PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ.
Of them, PPARγ is the most important one and plays an intricate role in various biological processes.
Upon activation by exogenous and endogenous lipid ligands, PPARγ binds to retinoid X receptor (RXR) to form a regulatory complex and is capable of stimulating adipogenesis, promoting adipocyte differentiation, and increasing insulin sensitivity.
Mutations in this gene are associated with:
- Obesity and high BMI;
- Increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes;
- High risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS): co-occurrence of several known cardiovascular risk factors;
- Insulin resistance (IR);
- Atherogenic dyslipidemia- low levels of LDL;
- High levels of HDL;
One SNP (SNPid rs1801282) is closely related to lipid disorders and obesity based on its fundamental role in lipid and glucose metabolism.