Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) is a gene that encodes the GAD67, a rate-limiting enzyme responsible for catalyzing the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from L-glutamic acid.
GABA molecules are the inhibitory neurotransmitter responsible for dampening down the nervous system. This dampening of neuronal activity creates a sedative effect that promotes sleep but also helps maintain the deep sleep required to wake to feel rested. On the opposite side, low GABA levels are often associated with insomnia.
While GABA molecules are inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter, so the balance of GABA to glutamate is considered vital.
GAD1 mutation causes decreased expression of GAD67, resulting in insufficient GABA to be synthesized and glutamate excess, resulting in too much excitation and poor inhibition.
In this sense, the rs769407 mutation is related to an increased risk of several conditions, such as Major Depression, Generalized anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Agoraphobia, and Social Phobia.
This gene has been chosen by our experts to be analyzed in several panels of our product portfolio: